Date posted: 15th July 2016

A brain injury is any injury occurring in the brain. Brain injuries can be classified along several dimensions. Primary and secondary brain injuries are classified by the injury processes that occur in brain injury. While focal and diffuse brain injuries are classified by the extent or location of injury in the brain. Read our powerpoint presentation guide to brain injuries.

 Brain Injuries

Traumatic brain injury

Acquired Brain Injury (ABI), sometimes referred to as a traumatic brain injury (TBI), is an injury to the brain caused by an injury to the head. It can be defined as “brain injury caused by trauma to the head”. This may include the effects of other complications to the brain, including but not limited to; hypoxemia, hypotension and intracerebral haematoma.

There are many possible causes, including road traffic accidents, assaults, falls and accidents at home or at work. Cerebral palsy is caused by a problem in the parts of the brain responsible for controlling muscles. The condition can occur if the brain develops abnormally or is damaged before, during or shortly after birth.

ABI can be characterised by a brief period of unconsciousness, or just feeling sick and dizzy. It is estimated that 75-80% of all head injuries are as a result of a person striking their head against a hard surface.

Moderate head injury

Moderate head injury occurs when there is a loss of consciousness for between 15 minutes and six hours; or a period of post-traumatic amnesia of up to 24 hours.

Moderate brain injury can occur any time there is a sudden, violent movement to the head, or a blow to the head. The symptoms of moderate brain injury are often not as obvious as the symptoms of more severe brain injuries. In many cases, moderate brain injury is often diagnosed well after the injury, as other apparent injuries can mask the symptoms. Some of the symptoms to look out for include: Headaches, memory issues, dizziness, nausea, tiredness, poor concentration and mood and personality changes.

Once the diagnosis has been made, treatment may include a combination of neurosurgery, physical therapy, speech/language therapy, occupational therapy, psychology, and support from social services.
The prognosis for moderate brain injury is good, with most patients recovering most or all of brain function. However, it is recommended that the patient stay under medical observation.

Severe head injury

Severe head injury is usually defined as being a condition where the patient has been in an unconscious state for six hours or more, or a post-traumatic amnesia of 24 hours or more. These patients are likely to be hospitalised and receive rehabilitation once the acute phase has passed. Depending on the length of time in coma, these patients tend to experience more serious physical and cognitive problems.

What is a stroke?

A stroke is a serious, life-threatening medical condition that occurs when the blood supply to part of the brain is cut off. Research shows that stroke is the third most common cause of death in the UK.
Strokes are a medical emergency and urgent treatment is essential because the sooner a person receives treatment for a stroke, the less damage is likely to happen.

As with other brain injuries, prevention is the best treatment. It is important to pay attention to lifestyle and treat other conditions, such as irregular heartbeats.

Stroke recovery

In the event of a stroke occurrence, it is recommended to seek medical attention immediately and access after-care follow up. Joining a rehabilitation centre is often seen as a good idea as the team can try to help regain lost skills.

Brain injuries explained

Brain Injuries


CPIMS have compiled a presentation that forms a summary of different brain injuries, causes and treatment procedures. This presentation should help you understand the function of the brain, causes of long term neurological conditions and understand the implications of care and quality of life.



At CPIMS, we have a team of rehabilitation specialists available to help, including case managers, physiotherapists, psychologists, occupational therapists, speech therapists and specialist nurses and doctors who can assist with a rehabilitation programme. Our experienced brain injury case managers have a wealth of experience and skills to support and help individuals regain control over their lives and maximise their potential.

Looking for more information on different types of brain injuries? Contact us today on 0844 371 0616 and our team of specialists will be happy to assist you.

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